Participation of silicon ions in the tolerance and plasticity of plants Phragmites australis to a soil moisture reduction

Nedukha, OM
Kordyum, EL
Dopov. Nac. akad. nauk Ukr. 2019, 7:89-96
Section: Biology
Language: Ukrainian

The results of studies of the localization and the silicon content in the leaves of air-water and terrestrial plants Phragmites australis, which grew on the banks of the Dnipro River (in the zone of Kiev) are presented. For the study of the Si content in leaves, cytochemical and structural methods are used. Classical biochemical methods are used to analyze the water content of the samples and the moisture content of the soil, on which the reed plants grew. For the analysis, we took leaves in the vegetative growth phase. The presence and subcellular localization of silicon ions are studied with the use of a laser confocal microscope (LSM 5, Zeiss, Germany) and a scanning electron microscope (with X-ray unit EX-S4175GMU, JEOL, Japan). The presence of silicon amorphous and crystalline inclusions in the periclinal cell walls of main epidermal cells, trichomes, stomatal cells, and over the leaf veins of air-water and terrestrial reed plants is shown by confocal microscopy. For the first time, a significant increase in the content of amorphous and crystalline silicon in the epidermis of leaves of this species of terrestrial plants by microscopy and X-ray analysis is revealed. It has been established that the cells of abaxial epidermis, in particular, cells around stomata and trichomes, trichomes and cells above veins, are the main accumulators of silicon in the leaves. It is assumed that such localization and increased content of silicon optimize the water balance of terrestrial plants and thus increase their resistance to soil drought. It is proposed to strengthen attention to the role of silicon in the adaptation of plants to adverse changes in abiotic environmental factors.

Keywords: leaf epidermis, Phragmites australis, silicon ions, soil drought

1. Vartapetian, B. & Jackson, M.B. (1997). Plant adaptation to anaerobic stress. Ann. Bot., 79, Suppl. A, pp. 3-20.
2. De Micco, V., & Aronne, G. (2012). Morpho-anatomical traits for plant adaptation to drought. In Aroca R. (Ed.). Plant Responses to drought stress, from morphology to molecular features (pp. 37-61). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
3. Epstein, E. (2009). Silicon: its manifold roles in plants. Ann. Appl. Biol., 155, pp. 155-160.
4. Perry, C.C. & Lu, Y. (1992). Preparation of silica from silicon complexes: role of cellulose in polymerization and aggregation control. Faraday Trans., 88, pp. 2915-2921.
5. Fleck, A.T., Nye, T., Repenning, C., Stahl, F., Zahn, M. & Schenk, M. (2011). Silicon enhances suberization and lignification in root of rice (Oryza sativa). J. Exp. Bot., 62, pp. 2001-2011.
6. Manivannan, A., & Ahn, Y.-K. (2017). Silicon regulates potentials genes involved in major physiological processes in plants to combat stress. Front. Plant Sci., 8, Art. 1346, pp.1-13.
7. Song, A., Li, P., Fan, F., Li, Z. & Liang, Y. (2014). The effect of silicon on photosynthesis and expression of its relevant genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under high-zinc stress. PLoS One, 9, e113782.
8. Kerstiens, G. (2006). Water transport in plant cuticles: an update. J. Exp. Bot., 57, pp. 2493-2499.
9. Ermakov, A. B. (1982). Determination of water content in plants (pp. 21-35). In Ermakov A.I. (Ed.). The methods of biochemical study of plants., Leningrad: Agropromizdat.
10. Dabney, C. III., Ostergaard, J., Watkins, E. & Chen, Ch. (2016). A novel method to characterize silica bodies in grasses. Plant Methods, 12, pp. 3-10.
11. Bücking, H. & Heyser, J. B. (2000). Subcellular compartmentation of elements in non-mycorrhizal and mycorrirhizal roots of Pinus sylvstris an X-ray microanalysis study. II. The distribution of calcium, potassium and sodium. New Phytol., 145, pp. 321-331.
12. Nedukha, O. M. (2017). Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Phragmites australis from Dnipro channel. Modern Phytomorphology, 11, pp. 139-146.
13. Hodson, M. J. White, P. J., Mead, A., & Broadley, M. R. (2005). Phylogenetic variation in the silicon composition of plants. Annal. Bot., 96, pp. 1027-1046.
14. Ahmed, M., Qadeer, U., Ahmed, Z.I. & Hazzan, F.-U. (2016). Improvement of wheat (Triticum aestivum) drought tolerance by seed priming with silicon. Arch. Agron. Soil. Sci., 62, Iss. 3, pp. 299-315.
15. Liu, P., Yin, L., Deng, X., Wang, S., Tanaka, K. & Zhang, S. (2014). Aquaporin-mediated increase in root hy draulic conductance is involved in silicon-induced improved root water uptake under osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L. J. Exp. Bot., 65, pp. 4747-4756.