Introduction and protection ex situ of the Caucasian floristic diversity in Ukraine

1Melnyk, VI
Didenko, SJ
1M.M. Gryshko National Botanic Garden of the NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv
Dopov. Nac. akad. nauk Ukr. 2020, 1:79-88
https://doi.org/10.15407/dopovidi2020.01.079
Section: Biology
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract: 

An important aspect of the ex situ plant protection is the modeling of the populations of rare and endangered species in artificial phytocoenosis. In 1949 in M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of the NAS of Ukraine, the phytogeographical plot “Caucasus” was founded by S.S. Kharkievicz. Now, it is the largest unit of the Caucasian phytodiversity ex situ. 411 Caucasian plant species, including 75 species from Red Data Books of Armenia, Azerbajdzan, Georgia, and Russian Federation are growing on an area of 6 ha. Modern artificial phytocoenosis in the phytogeographical plot “Caucasus” are a little copies of Caucasian landscape ecosystems. 70 yearsold cultivated forest and steppe phytocoenosis are very similar to the native Caucasian forest and steppe communities by floristic diversity. The unique 70 yearold cultivated forest and steppe phytocoenoses in the National Botanical Garden are suitable habitats for many rare and endangered species. Rare forest species of Caucasian flora — Taxus baccata, Dioscorea caucasica, Erythronium caucasicum, Fritillaria grandiflora, Helleborus caucasicus, Paeonia caucasica, Staphylea colchica, Arum rupicola, Cyclamen coum, Epimedium pinnatum, Lilium monadelphum, Tulipa biebersteiniana and rare steppe species Adonis vernalis, Paeonia tenuifolia, Crocus reticulatus, Iris aphylla, Fritillaria caucasica, Crambe cordifolia, Eremurus spectabilis — formed stable introductive populations with a homeostatic age structure for many years. These introductive populations are very similar to the populations of these species in natural habitats. The phytogeographical plot “Caucasus” in M.M. Cryshko National Botanical Garden is a valuable national achievement of Ukraine in the plant conservation ex situ.

Keywords: Caucasus, ex situ conservation, floristic diversity, introduction, population, Ukraine
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