The problem of trichinellosis among wild animals in Ukraine and the danger to the public

1Akimov, IA
Didyk, YM
1I. I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology of the NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv
Dopov. Nac. akad. nauk Ukr. 2020, 3:82-87
https://doi.org/10.15407/dopovidi2020.03.082
Section: Biology
Language: Ukrainian
Abstract: 

Trichinellosis is one of the most dangerous helminthic diseases common to humans and animals. It is caused by nematodes from the Trichinella complex. Up to now, Trichinella complex is recognized at least 9 species (the encapsulated and non-encapsulated clades) and 3 genotypes. Trichinella infections are found in a lot of mammal species, as well as reptiles and birds almost all over the world. More than 10 000 cases of human trichinellosis reported annually. Specific treatment of disease is unresolved still. Trichinella infection detected in all regions of Ukraine. Larvae were found in 3 % of investigated wild boars, 15.5 % wolves, 16 % red foxes, 12 % martens, 10 % badgers, and 20 % raccoon dogs. The infestation extent of wild mammals’ trichinellosis is on its raise over the past 30 years in Ukraine: 3.5 % (Kondratyev et al., 1976), 8.8 % (Kulikova, 1989), and 15 % (our data). Wolves and foxes are found to be the main reservoir of Trichinella in a sylvatic cycle. Our studies demonstrate the presence of 3 Trichinella species in Ukraine. T. britovi is found in wild boars, wolves, foxes, and martens in all Ukraine. T. nativa is found in wolves and foxes from Chernihiv, Poltava, Sumy, and Kherson regions. For the first time, we have reported the spreading of T. nativa from north to south of the country. Nematodes T. nativa are the most aggressive against humans from all Trichinella species found in Ukraine. T. spiralis is found in wild boars from the Zhytomyr and Mykolaiv regions. Mixed infections (T. britovi-T. spiralis) are found in southern regions of Ukraine. More than 1 500 cases of human trichinellosis were found over the past 30 years in Ukraine. Mortality from trichinellosis is 0.5 %. Infected game meat is the main source of human Trichinella infection in recent time. Further investigations of Trichinella are need in Ukraine.

Keywords: Trichinella spp., Ukraine, wild mammals
References: 

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