Influence of solar activity on water clusters. Annual variations 2015—2019
Keywords:solar activity, solar cycles, hydrolysis, water clusters, circadian rhythms
The variations of solar activity and distribution of solar energy due to the rotation of the Earth around its axis and around the Sun exert a strong influence on water clusters, as a result of which their chemical reactivity in hydrolytic processes can vary in a very wide range. This phenomenon is well manifested in the hydrolysis of the phosphoric acid esters. The 5-year regular investigations (2015—2019) of the hydrolysis of triethylphosphite in acetonitrile show that the rate of this reaction with all other conditions being equal displays diurnal, very large annual variations, and is also modulated by the 11-year cycles of solar activity. Since water is a necessary constituent in all forms of life, the discovered diurnal and annual variations of water clusters’ reactivity may underlie the biological circadian and circannual rhythms. The results obtained also point to the fact that the chemical reactivity of water clusters depends on the geographic latitude, and, in summer and winter, it can be significantly different at the same time in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. At the equator, where there should be no seasonal differences, measurements of the rate of triethylphosphite hydrolysis may become an independent method for assessing the solar activity.
Ludwig, R. (2001). Water: From clusters to the bulk. Angew. Chem. Int. Edit., 40, pp. 1808-1827. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3773(20010518)40:10<1808::AID-ANIE1808>3.0.CO;2-1
Keutsch, F. N. & Saykally, R. J. (2001). Water clusters: Untangling the mysteries of the liquid, one molecule at a time. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, No. 19, pp. 10533-10540. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.191266498
Duan, Ch., Wei, M., Guo, D., He, Ch. & Meng, Q. (2010). Crystal structures and properties of large protona ted water clusters encapsulated by metal-organic frameworks. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 132, pp. 3321-3330. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja907023c
Liu, K., Brown, M. G., Cruzan, J. D. & Saykally, R. J. (1996). Vibration-rotation tunneling spectra of the water pentamer: Structure and dynamics. Science, 271, pp. 62-64. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.271.5245.62
Nauta, K. & Miller, R. E. (2000). Formation of cyclic water hexamer in liquid helium: The smallest piece of ice. Science, 287, pp. 293-295. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5451.293
Huisken, F., Kaloudis, M. & Kulcke, A. (1996). Infrared spectroscopy of small size-selected water clusters. J. Chem. Phys., 104, pp. 17-25. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.470871
Space Weather Phenomena. NOAA/NWS Space Weather Prediction Center. Retrieved from http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/phenomena
Lehninger, A.L. (1975). Biochemistry. 2nd ed. New York: Worth Pabl. Inc.
Metzleer, D.E. (1977). Biochemistry. The chemical reactions of living cells. New York: Academic Press.
Johnsson, A. (2008). Light, circadian and circannual rhythms. In Solar radiation and human health, Bjertness, E. (Ed.) (pp. 57-75). Oslo: The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.
Luthardt, L. & Rößler, R. (2017). Fossil forest reveals sunspot activity in the early Permian. Geology, 45, No. 3, pp. 279-282. https://doi.org/10.1130/G38669.1
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Reports of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.